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The Swiss Cheese Model

James Reasons Swiss Cheese Model, established for the aviation industry, likens human systems to multiple slices of swiss cheese, stacked side by side, in which the risk of a threat becoming a reality is mitigated by the differing layers and types of defences.

It is accepted that each slice of cheese has latent flaws (hole in the cheese) that are either unforeseen issues or issue not addressed by that particular slice of cheese.

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Human Factors

Environmental Factors

Policy & Proceedure

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Catastrophe occurs when the holes in all the slices of cheese line up meaning that all layers of protection have failed to prevent the incident.

If the layers of cheese are established, the risk of an incident occurring would be considered low to moderate allowing organisations to operate safely and effectively. 

We at InDefence use this industry standard risk mitigation model to create a comprehensive personal safety blueprint proven to enhance peoples ability to operate under pressure safely by creating professional pre-planned responses to avoid poor decisions.


This approach significantly reduces the opportunity for potentially violent conflict to occur and dramatically enhances peoples safety.

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Policy & Proceedure

Environmental Factors

Human Factors



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Defence of your Home

The way that we make your staff safe is similar to the way you secure your home. In order to prevent the opportunity for theft to occur, your home, just like the Swiss cheese model, has layers of defences that attempt to prevent, deter, delay and detect intruders.

The layers of defences commonly found in private residence include: fences, dogs, automated lighting, electronic devices like CCTV and alarm systems, and the locking of external doors and windows.


Should all of those layers fail to stop an intruder (which does happen), and you find yourself confronted by a violent offender your last line of defence is your defensive tactics knowledge of which your right to self defence using proportionate force, if necessary, is just one of many options.

The Weakest Link

Regardless of your policies and procedures for securing your home, the weakest link in your defence is the human element. Specifically peoples beliefs and attitudes.


The fence works well, if the gate is shut. The lights will deter many offenders intent on stealing your belongings, if they are turned on. The door will protect you from violence, if its locked.  Similarly  a smoke detector will save your families life if they are installed and you have changed the batteries.


Ultimately you are significantly safer if you and your family believe that the opportunity for conflict or potential violence exists and steps have been taken to mitigate those risks.

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